Mark Klimek Short Questions and Answers-Flashcards

Mark Klimek Short Questions and Answers

If the pH and the BiCarb are both in the same direction then it is?



If the pH is up it is?



If the pH is down it is?



As the pH goes so goes my patient except for?



If the pH is UP my patient will show signs and symptoms of…?

Increase… like tachycardia,diarrhea and borborygmi


If the pH is down my patient will show signs and symtoms of?

Decrease… like decreased output, bradycardia and constipation


If my pH is up my potassium (K+) is ?



If my pH is down my potassium (K+) is?



If my patient is overventilating I should choose?

Respiratory Alkalosis


If my patient is underventilating I should choose?

Respiratory Acidosis


If my patient has prolonged gastric vomiting or suction I choose?

Metabolic Alkalosis


If it is not lung or prolonged vomiting or suctioning I choose?

Metabolic Acidosis


High pressure alarms are triggered when?

They cannot push air in


High pressure alarms are caused by what three types of obstructions?

Kinking, Water in dependant loops and mucus in the airway.


If kinking in the tube is present you?



If water is present in the dependant loops you?

Open system and empty water.


If mucus is present you?

Turn them, cough and have them deeo breath first. If ineffective you then suction.


Low pressure alarms are triggered when?

It is too easy to push air in.


Low pressure alarms are normally caused by?



If the tubing is disconnected you?



If O2 sensor line is disconnected you?



In a vented client respiratory alkalosis means the vent setting may be too?



In a vented client respiratory acidosis means the vent may be too?



What do you do if the patients disconnected tube is on the floor?

Bag them, (call for help) get new tube and then reconnect.


What do you do if the patients disconnected tube is on the chest?

Reconnect … if its above the waist its ok.


What is the biggest problem in abuse?


applicable to all forms of abuse

To treat denial you need to?



How do you confront?

Point out the difference between what they say and what they do.


What is the one circumstance that you as a nurse would support denial?

Loss and Grief


What is dependency?

When the abuser gets a significant other to make decisions for them or do thing for them.


the abuser is dependent

What is codependency?

When the significant other gets positive self esteem from doing things or making decisions for an abuser.


To treat dependency/codependency you?

Set limits and enforce them. You also need to work or the self estreem of the codependent.


What is manipulation?

When the abuser gets the significant other fo do things for them that is not in the best interest of the significant other. This can be dangerous and harmful to the significant other.


How do you treat manipulation?

Set limits and enforce.


Why is manipulation easier to treat then dependency/codependency?

Because no one likes being manipulated.


What is Wernickes (Korsakoffs) Syndrome?

Psychosis induced by vitamin B1 (Thiamine) deficiency.


Vitamin B1 helps breakdown?



Primary symptom of Wernickes?

Amnesia with confabulation (making up stories).


Is Wernickes preventable?



Is Wernickes arrestable?



Is Wernickes reversible?



What is aversion therapy?

When you try and make the patient hate something.


Antabuse onset and duration is?

2 weeks


Teach a patient taking Antabuse to avoid what?



On top of alcohol a patient taking Antabuse should also avoid what other 7 things?

Elixirs, Vanilla Extract, Aftershave/Perfumes, Alcohol based hand sanitizer, Insect repellant, Mouthwash and Vinagerette.


What are the five uppers?

Caffeine, Cocaine, Methamphetamines, PCP/LSD and ADHD Meds


Downers are?

Everything other then the five uppers.


S/S of upper use?

Everything goes up…Tachycardia, increased BP etc.


S/S of downer use?

Everything goes down…Bradycardia, decreased BP etc.


Overdose of a downer causes everything to go?



Overdose of an upper causes everything to go?



Withdrawal of an upper causes everything to go?



Withdrawal of a downer causes everything to go?



At birth if the mother was addicted to a substance always assume the newborn is in?



If 24 hours after birth assume the baby is in?



Every alcoholic goes through what withing 24 hours after cessation?

Withdrawal syndrome


After 72 hours of alochol withdrawal a small minority may get?

Delirium Tremens


Can Delirium Tremens kill you?



Can Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome kill you?



Are patients with Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome a danger to themselves or others?



Are patients with Delirium Tremens a danger to themselves or others?



N/I for Delirium Tremens?

Private room near nurses station, NPO/Clear liquids, Restricted bed rest, restraints, tranquilizer, multivitamin (B1 vit.) and antihypertensive.


N/I for Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome?

Semi-private room anywhere, regular diet, up and ad-lib, no restraint, tranquilizer, multivitamin (B1) and antihypertensive.


A two point restraint is?

One arm and the opposite leg.


N/I for restraints?

Check Q15min. and rotate sites Q2H


All aminoglycosides end in?

“mycin” Vancomycin


If it has “thro” in it you?

Throw it out…Zithromycin


Toxic effects of aminoglycosides?

Ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity and cranial nerve 8 (vestibulocochlear nerve) which senses sound.


In aminoglycoside use monitor?

Hearing, balance, tinnitus & creatinine (best indicator of renal function)


Frequency of administration for aminoglycosides?



Aminoglycoside route of administration?

Im or IV


Aminoglycosides are given PO for what two reasons?

Hepatic Encephalopathy and Pre-op bowel surgery.


Neomycin and Kanmycin are used for what?

Bowel sterilzation?


Who can sterilize my bowel?

“Neo” “Kan”


Hepatic Encephalopathy is caused by?

High ammonia levels


What raises ammonia levels the most?

Ecoli in the gut


When do you draw a trough level?

30 minutes before the next scheduled dose.


When do you draw a sublingual peak level?

5-10 minutes after it is dissolved.


When do you draw a IV peak level?

15-30 minutes after dose is finished.


When do you draw a IM peak level?

30-60 minutes after given


Drugs DON’t determine peak and trough times, the ROUTE does.


Calcium Channel Blockers are like what for the heart?



Calcium Channel Blockers treat what? (the 6 A’s)

Antihypertensive, Anti-Anginal, Anti Atrial Arrythmia and SVTS


Calcium Channel Blocker side effects? (the 2 H’s)

Headache and Hypotension


What causes angina?

Chest pain due to O2 supply and demand issues.


90% of Calcium Channel Blockers end in?

“dipine” and “zem”


When giving a Calcium Channel Blocker you hold and notify if?

Systolic is 100 or lower.


“QRS” refers to?



“P” refers to?



Asystole is?

A lack of QRS repolarizations


Atrail Flutter is?

Rapid P-wave repolarizations in a saw tooth pattern.


A-Fib is?

Chaotic QRS depolarizations


V-fib is?

Chaotic QRS depolarizations


V-tach is?

Wide bizarre QRS’s


PVC is?

Periodic wide, bizarre QRS’s


Be concerned about PVC’s if? ( the 6, 6 T’s of PVC’s)

More then 6 per minute, 6 in a row


What are the 2 lethal arrythmias?

A-systole and V-Fib


What are the 4 potentially life threatening arrythmias?

V-tach, A-fib, A-flutter and PVC


What are the 6 arrythmias you are tested over on the NCLEX?

V-fib, A-fib, A-flutter, PVC, A-systole and V-tach


What are the 6 arrythmias for NCLEX in order for prioritization?

A-systole, V-fib, V-tach, A-fib, A-flutter and PVC


When talking about arrythmias the word “chaotic” means?



When talking about arrythmias the word ‘bizarre” means?



PVC’s fall on what wave of the previous beat?

T wave


When given a prioritization question for lethal arrythmias if you are asked to prioritize and one say it happened 6 minutes ago and the other says 15 minutes ago which do you choose?

Always the one closest to the 8 minute mark. After 8 minutes the survival rate is LOW.


To treat PVC’s you give?



To treat V-tach you give? (If it start with a V you use..)



To treat supraventricular arrythmias you give?

Adenocard, Beta-blocker (end in “lol’), Calcium Channel Blocker and Digitalis or Lonoxin.


Supra means?



To treat V-fib you ?

Defibrillate … For V-fib you D-fib


To treat AsystolE you give?

Atropine and Epinephrine but give it in reverse.


If asked how to treat A-fib first you?

Give Heparin then ABCD…. Heparin is instant Coumadin and Plavix take time.


An Apical chest tube is placed?

High (for air) A for air


A Basilar chest tube is placed?

Low (for blood) B for blood


If you are asked about chest tubes after a surgery or trauma you can assumes it’s a?

Unilateral Pneumohemothorax


Does a pneumonectomy get a chest tube?



What 4 things do you do if the water seal breaks on a chest tube?

Clamp it 1st!! Cut broken device off of tube, put the tube in water (NS), unclamp.


If asked about the best thing to di if the water seal breaks and not asking the first thing to do you?

Put it in water (NS).


What 4 things do you do if a chest tube comes out?

Cover hole with a gloved hand, put on a vaseline gauze dressing, put on sterile dressing ands then tape on 3 sides.


How long can you clamp a chest tube?

No longer then 15 seconds without a doctors order.


What do you use to clamp a chest tube and why?

Rubber tipped double clamps. Rubber because it won’t pierce the tube and double because were nurses and if one is good two is better.


Is bubbling in the water seal continuously good?

No it is bad. You need to find the air leak, tape it, report it and then record it.


Is bubbling in the water seal intermittently good?

Yes it should tidal on inhale.


Is bubbling in the suction control chamber intermittently good?

No it is bad. You need to dial up the suction, report and record.


Is bubbling in the suction control chanber continuously good?



All congenital heart defects that are trouble start with a ?



What defects have right to left shunts and are cyanotic?

Trouble defects


What defects have left to right shunts and are acyanotic?

Not trouble defects


All congenital heart defects have what?

Murmurs and Echocardiogram


What are the four defects of Tetrology of Fellot?

Ventricular Defect, Pulmonic Stenosis, Overriding Aorta and Right Hypertrophy


What is the saying to help remember the four defects of Tetrology of Fellot?

VarieD PictureS Of A RancH


1 fingerwidth is how many cm’s?



When the handgrip of a crutch is properly in place the elbow felxion should be?



Crutches should be how many fingerwidths below the armpit?



Describe a 2 point gait?

one crutch and opposite foot together 2. Other crutch and other foor together.
2 points 2gether and the same time.


Describe a 3 point gait?

Move two crutches and bad leg together. 2. Move good foot.
Move all three together and then the good leg.


Describe a 4 point gait?

One crutch 2. Opposite foot. 3. Other crutch. 4. Other foot.
It moves one at a time so 1,2,3,4 and 1,2,3,4, and 1,2,3,4 so crutch, foot, other crutch, other foot, and crutch,foot, other foot, other crutch etc,


Describe swing through?

Used for two braced extremeties 1. Crutches 2. Legs… they kind of hop.


Use the even numbered gaits when weakness is?

Evenly distributed (bilateral)


When using the even gaits what one is for severe and what one for mild problems?

2 point gait for mild 4 point gait for severe.


Use the odd numbered gait when?

The problem is affecting one leg (unilateral)


Going up the stairs or down the stairs with crutches patient must remember…

UP with the GOOD and DOWN with the BAD


Crutches always move with what leg?

The bad leg.


What side do you hold the cane?

Strong side.


What side do you advance the cane with?

The weak side for a wide base support.
Step with opposites


For walkers remember you?

Pick it up, set it down and walk to it.


What is a delusion?

A false fixed belief, idea or thought.
This has no sensory component.


What are the three types of delusions?

Paranoid or Persecutory, Grandiose and Somatic


What is a paranoid delusion?

False fixed belief that people are out to harm you (CIA, FBI).


What is a grandiose delusion?

False fixed belief that you are superior (God, the Pope).


What is a somatic delusion?

False fixed belief about a body part (X-ray vision).


What is a hallucination?

False, fixed sensory experience.


Five types of hallucinations?

Auditory, visual, tactile, olfactory and gustatory.


What is an illusion?

Misinterpretation of reality.
It is a sensory experience.


How can you diffirentiate between illusions and hallucinations?

There is a referent ( something to which they refer). So the patient takes something from reality and has a sensory response.


What are the four types of functional psychosis?

Schizophrenia, Schizoaffective disorder, Major depression/mania (bipolar).


If a functional psychotic is having a delusion or illusion you?

Acknowledge the feeling ( that sound horrible), present reality (but we have no spiders in the room), set a limit ( were not going to talk about that lets talk about something else), enforce the limit ( I see you’re to ill to talk about reality).


5 examples of psychosis of dementia?

Alzheimers, dementia, organic brain syndrome, wernickesand seniality.


What do you do if a patient with psychosis of dementia is having a hallucination or illusion?

Acknowledge and Redirect.


What is flight of ideas?

Jump from word to word. (This room is big, I liked the movie BIG when they were on the piano, Elvis could play the piano).


What is word salad?

Jump from word to word. Bob, Car, Sleep, Foot etc..


What is neologisms?

Make up new words.


What is a narrowed self concept?

When they refuse to leave the room or get dressed. (DON’T force them to do it)


What is ideas of reference?

When they think everything is about them. (Everyone is talking about me)


Type I Diabetes (IJK)?

Insulin dependent
Juvenile onset
Ketosis prone (makes ketones)


Type II diabetes? (non all of the above)

Non insulin dependant
Adult onset
Non ketosis prone


Diabetes S/S?

Polyuria, Polydypsia and polyphagia (hunger)


How do you treat type I diabetes? (DIE)

Diet 3
Insulin 1
Exercise 2


How do you treat type II diabetes? (DOA)

Diet 1
Oral hypoglycemic 3
Activity 2


Type II diabetics need how many calories a day?



Type II diabetics need how many feedings a day?



What two drugs can increase blood sugar?

Glucagon and Epinephrine


If client exercises more they need?

Less insulin


If client exercises less they need?

More insulin


When a client is sick what does it do to there blood sugar?

It increases it.


Teach diabetics who are sick to?

Take insulin, take sips of water to stay hydrated and stay as active as possible.


What are the 4 types of insulin?

Regular, NPH, Humalog and Lantus


Regualr insulins all have what in them?



Regular insulin onset?

1 hour


Regular insulin peak

2 hours


Regular insulin duration?

4 hours


NPH insulin all have a what in them?



NPH onset?

6 hours


NPH peak?

8-10 hours


NPH duration?

12 hours


NPH is not so fast and not in the bag (IV)


Regualr insulin is rapid and run


With humalog when do you give it?

With meals


Humalog onset?

15 minutes


Humalog peak?

30 minutes


Humalog duration?

3 hours


What is the only insulin safe to give at bedtime?



Which insulin works the fastest?



What are the three reasons that cause low blood sugar in type I diabetes?

not enough food, to much insulin (#1) and too much exercise.


What is the biggest danger with low blood sugar?

Brain damage if its less then 15


S/S of low blood sugar are?

The same S/S of shock and being drunk… clammy, weak, slurred speach etc.


Treatment for low blood sugar in type I diabetes?

Rapidly metabolizable carb or ideally a carb/protein combo or carb/starch combo.

Unconscious (NPO): give glucagon IM or dextrose IV.


Examples of rapidly metabolizing carbs?

Juice, hard candy, icing, honey, syrup


Diabetic Ketoacidosis (AKA high blood sugar in Type I diabetes) is caused by what 3 things?

Too much food
Not emough insulin
Not enough exercise


What is the #1 cause of DKA?

Viral upper respiratory infection within last 2 weeks.



K-etones in the urine and blood, Kussmaul Resp and K+
A-cidosis, Acetone breath, Anorexia d/t nausea


DKA treatment?

IV at high flow rate (200hr.) with insulin R (it doesnt matter what solution its in)


Treatment for low blood sugar in Type II is the same as Type I low blood sugar treatment.


High blood sugar in type II diabetes aka hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic, non-ketotic coma (HHNK) is the same as?




Same as dehydration


Treatment for HHNK is?

Rehydrate but no insulin in the bag because it is not type I diabetes. You only give insulin in the bag with type I diabetes because they burn fat and it turns to ketones.


What are the two long term problems from diabetes?

Peripheral neuropathy and poor tissue perfusion.


What lab is the best indicator for long term blood sugar maintenance?

HGBA1C aka glycosated hemoglobin


Lithium therapeutic level?



Lithium toxic level?

over 2.0


Lanoxin (digoxin) therapeutic level?



Lanoxin (digoxin) toxic level?

Over 2.0


Aminophylline therapeutic level?



Aminophylline toxic lever?

Over 20


Dilantin therapeutic level?



Dilantin (Phenytoin) toxic level?

Over 20


Elevated bilirubin level?

10-20 neonate only


Toxic bilirubin level?

Over 20 neonate only


Dilantin is an?



Aminophylline is an?

Airway antispasm


Lanoxin(digoxin) is for?

CHF, Atrial arrhythmia


Lithium decreases?



What is Kernicterus?

When bilirubin is over 20 and in the CSF(cerebrospinalfluid)


What is Opisthotonos?

Position of hyperextension seen with kernicterus. Place them on there side if present.


If kernicterus and opisthotonos are occuring you?

Call doctor, drae bilirubin level, increase the IV rate and start billi lights.


Hiatal hernia is?

Gastric contents moving in the WRONG DIRECTION and the CORRECT RATE.


Dumping syndrome is?

Gastric contents moving in the RIGHT DIRECTION and the INCORRECT RATE.


S/S of hiatal hernia are?

GERD upon lying after meals


S/S of dumping syndrome are?

Acute abdominal distress= gas, ^bs, cramping, bloat
Dumping= s/s of being drunk
Syndrome= s/s shock


3 treatments for hiatal hernia is?

High fowlers during and 1hr after meals
Increase fluids with meals
Increased carbs


3 treatments for dumping syndrome?

Lay flat on side during and 1hr after meals
Decrease fluids during meals(drink between meals)
Decrease carbs (aka ^ protein diet)


Kalemias do the same as the prefix except for the what?

The HR and urine output.


Calcemias do the opposite of the prefix plus all what?

BP changes


What is Chvosteks sign?

Push the cheek and it spasms


What is Trousseaus sign?

BP cuff inflated and causes a carpal spasm.


Magnesemias do the opposite of the prefix plus all what?

BP changes


If in a tie never pick magnesium. If the symptom involves nerve or skeletal pick calcemia. For any other symptom pick potassium.


What is the rule for Natremias?

The one with the E id dehydration the one with the O is overload
HypErnatremia has s/s of dehydration and HypOnatremia has s/s of fluid overload.


Earliest sign of an electrolyte overload is?

Numbness and tingling (parasthesia)


Universal s/s of an electrolyte imbalance is?

Muscle weakness (AKA paresis)


Nere push what electrolyte?



To decrease K+ you give?

D5W with Insulin R (insulin pulls the K+ from the blood and pulls it in the cell with glucose. this buys time but doesnt solve the problem)


Kayexelate does what?

Gets rid of K+ slow and late


How much K+ can you have per liter of IV fluid?

40 mEq


What two words mean the same thing as immunosuppresion?

Agranulocytosis and neutropenia.


Hyperthyroidism (AKA graves disease) is the same as saying?



S/S of Hyperthyroidism?

Same as hypermetabolism… agitated, nervous, diarrhea, hot, ^HR, ^BP, thin, hyperactive etc.


Remember RUN yourself in the GRAVE

Hyperthyroidism (Graves Disease)


Graves disease treatment options are? (3)

1.Radiation with I131 (radioactive iodine) 1st 24hrs be alone and flush the toilet alot. 2. PTU(drug) worry about immunosuppresion. 3. Surgical removal.


What are the two types of Thyroidectomys?

Total and Sub-total.


With a Total Thyroidectomy what do they need for life?

Hormone replacement (Synthroid)


What are you at risk for following a Total Thyroidectomy?

Hypocalcemia (parathyroid regulates calcium)


For a Sub-total Thyroidectomy you are at risk for what?

Thyroid storm


S/S of a Thyroid storm are?

The same as Graves Disease but incredibly higher.

Exp: HR 180, Temp 108*, psychotic delirium.


Thyroid storm treatment?

High flow O2, 5 ice packs= 2 under each arm, 2 groin, 1 back of neck.


Post Op Thyroidectomy risks 1st 12 hrs?

Hemorrhage and airway. After 1st 12hrs assume they are stable.


Post Op thyroidectomy risks 12-48 hrs for Total Thyroidectomy?



Post Op Sub-Total Thyroidectomy risks 12-48 hrs…

Thyroid storm


Hypothyroidism is the same as saying?



Hypothyroidism S/S?

Same as hypometabolism ie, tired, sluggish etc


What is the name of the disease for hypothyroidism?



Treatment for hypothyroidism?

Hormone supplement


If asked a question and your patient is critical remember to always STAY with the patient!!


Do you sedate a patient with hypothyroidism (myxedema)?

No, you could put them into a coma. This patient is already low in consciousness.


If a patient with hypothyroidism is NPO for surgery you still give them what?

Hormone replacement medication.


What is Addison’s Disease?

Under secretion of the adrenal cortex.


S/S of Addison’s Disease?

Hyperpigmentation and do not adapt well to stress.


Addisons Disease treatment?

Chronic steroids (glucocorticoids)


With Addison’s Disease you ADD what?



Cushing Syndrome is the oversecretion of?

The adrenal cortex.


S/S of Cushing’s Syndrome?

Think of the Cush Man… Moon face, buffalo hump, thin legs and bones, striae (stretch marks), male breasts, hirstusism etc,


Cushings Syndrome treatment?



Contact precautions are used for what 4 types of diseases?

RSV, Herpatic infection, Staph infections and Enteric (bowel) infections


Contact precautions have what 5 things?

Private room – door can be open
Gown- if giving direct care
Disposable supplies


Droplet precautions are for what 2 diseases?

All meningitis and all influenza


Droplet precations have what 6 things?

Private room- door can be open
Mask- #1 in this group
Pt wears mask when leaving room
Disposable/dedicated equipment


Airborne precautions are for what 4 diseases?

SARS, TB, Measles and Varicella


Airborne precautions have what 9 things?

Private room-door closed
Special filter respirator masks
Pt wears a mask when leaving room
Disposable/dedicated supplies
Negative airflow room


PPE contains?

Gloves, gown, gogles and mask unless told otherwise.


Proper order for donning PPE?

  1. gown
    2. mask
    3. goggles
    4. gloves


Where do you remove PPE?

In the room.


Where do you put on PPE?

Outside the room.


Proper order for removing PPE?

  1. gloves
    2. goggles
    3. gown
    4. mask


In airborne precautions it is ok to remove what piece of PPE outside of the room?



What position are your hands for handwashing?

Hands below elbow


How long do you wash for handwashing?

15 seconds


Can the faucet have handles for handwashing?



What do you use in handwashing?

Soap and water


When do you wash your hands?

Before and after gloves
Entering and exiting a room
After you soil your hands


What position are your hands in for scrubbing?

Elbows below hands.


What is the length for hand scrubbing?

3-7 minutes


What do you use for hand scrubbing?

Cleaning agent must have the prefix “chlor”


Can the sink have handles for scrubbing?



When do you use scrubbing?

Immunosuppresion, surgery, transplant, chemo, HIV


Dry yours hands from…?

Cleanest to least clean


You can use alcohol based solution when?

Before and after gloves, entering and leaving a room


What can children under for not have?

Small toys


If a child has O2 is use what type of toys can’t be used?



What is the best toy for a 0-6 month old?

Musical mobile (get rid of this at 6 months or when the child is sitting up)


What three things should you ask yourself when choosing appropriate toys for kids?

Is it safe
Is it appropriate
Is it feasible


What is the 2nd best toy for a 0-6 month old?

Anything soft and large


What is the best toy for a 6-9 month old?

Cover/uncover toy


What is the second best toy for a 6-9 month old?

Anything large that they can’t swallow.


What is the best toy for a 9-12 month old?

Talking toy.


What is the second best toy for a 9-12 month old?

Anything that is purposeful (rolling a ball back and forth)


What 5 words should you avoid when answering a question about toys for a child under 9 months old?



What is the best toy for a toddler (1-3 yr.)?

Push/pull toy


What should you work on with a toddler (1-3 yr.) ?

Gross motor


What is toddler (1-3 yr.) play characterized by?

Parallel play (with another child but alone)


What two things should you work on with a preschooler (3-6 yr.) ?

Fine motor (fingers)
Balance (dance, gymnastics)


What sort of play do preschoolers (3-6 yr.) prefer?

Pretend play


What is preschooler (3-6 yr.) play characterized by?

Co-operative play (together)


School age (7-11 yr.) is characterized by the 3 C’s, what are they?

Creative (no coloring book, use blank paper)


Adolescents (12-18 yr.) “play” is?

Peer associated


Allow adolescents to be in each others rooms unless?

Fresh post-op


If you’re being questioned over a drag and drop and you’re given an option that would require a doctors order assume that you have that order. But if an option is to call the doctor, you call first then give.


Best indicator of kidney function?



Creatnine norm?



INR monitors…

Coumadin/Warafin therapy


INR therapeutic level?



If the INR is over 4 you?

Hold all Coumadin/Warafin
Assess bleeding
Prepare to give K+
Call doctor


Potassium norm?



If the potassium is below 3.5 you?

Assess the heart
Prepare to give potassium
Call the doctor


If the potassium is high (5.4-5.9 high but still within the 5’s) you?

Hold potassium if in the IV
Assess the heart
Prepare to give D5W with insulin
Call the doctor


If the potassium is over 6 you…?

If negative effects present you call Rapid Response.
If no negative effects you do the same as “high but within the 5’s)


pH norm?



If the pH is under 6 you?

Assess vital signs
Call the doctor ASAP


BUN norm?



If the BUN is elevated cheack for?



How should you prioritize labs?

Based on what the level will do to the body and not the disease it’s associated with.


If you have a lab thats high and you don’t know why pick?



Hgb norm?



Hgb under 8 you?

Assess bleeding
Prepare blood
Call doctor


Bicarb (HCO3) norm?



CO2 norm?



CO2 is the 50’s you?

Assess respiratory status
Do pursed lip breathing
^ exhale time
DON’t give O2 if the above isn’t working call the doctor!


CO2 in the 60’s (respiratory failure) you?

Assess respiratory status
Do pursed lip breathing
Prepare for intubation
Call respiratory therapy
Call the doctor


Hct norm?



PO2 norm?



PO2 70-77 you?

Assess respiratory status
Give O2


PO2 below 60 you?

Assess respiratory status
Give O2
Prepare for intubation
Call respiratory therapy
Call the doctor


O2 sat norm?



O2 sat below 93 you?

Assess respiratory status
Give O2


BNP norm?



BNP is a good indicator of what?



What is the best indicator of CHF?



ANF and BNP=



Sodium norm?



Sodium is ok if abnormal unless what occurs?

Change in LOC


WBC norm?



Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) norm?



CD4 norm?

< 200 is AIDS


If the WBC count is high this is called?



If the WBC is low it is called?

Bone marrow supression


If the WBC is low you should?

Follow strict handwashing
Shower BID with antimicrobial soap
Avoid crowds
Private room
No fresh flowers or potted plants
Low bacteria diet- no raw fruits/veggies, no undercooked meat.
No water drinking if its been sitting for longer then 15 minutes.
Vitals Q4H
Check WBC daily
Avoid reusable plates/silverware etc,


Platelets norm?



If platelets are below 90,000 you?

Check for bleeding
Place on bleeding precautions (thrombolytic precautions)


If platelets are below 40,000 you?

Prepare platelet transfusion
Call the doctor


RBC norm?



Reason for laminectomy is?

To treat nerve root compression.


3 P’s of nerve root compression (S/S) ?

Paresis= muscle weakness


Knowing the location of a laminectomy is key to getting the ? right.


Cervical =



Thoracic =



Lumbar =



Pre-op cervical laminectomy’s most important assessment is?

1st breathing (rate and rhythm)
2nd arm and motor sensory


Pre-op thoracic laminectomy’s most important assessment is?

1st cough (uses abdominal muscles)
2nd bowel sounds


Pre-op lumbar laminectomy’s most important assessment is?

1st voiding ( when was last time, can they)
2nd leg motor and sensory.


The rule of ABC’s does not work in what area of health?



What is the #1 post-op answer for the NCLEX?

Log roll the patient


Activity requirements/restrictions Q8H after laminectomy surgery?

Do not dangle (AKA sit on the side of bed)
May stand, walk and ly without restrictions
Don’t sit longer than 30 minutes


What post-op complication do you watch for with a cervical laminectomy?



What post-op complication do you watch for with a thoracic laminectomy?

Paralytic ileus


What post-op complication do you watch for with a lumbar laminectomy?

Urinary retention


For a laminectomy what incision site is more painful?

Hip site


For a laminectomy what incision has the most drainage/bleeding?

Hip site


For a laminectomy what incision site has the highest risk for infection?

50/50 equal


If being asked about a surgery and the length of time for restrictions your default answer should be?

6 weeks


Discharge teaching for a laminectomy?

Don’t sit for longer then 30 minutes for 6 weeks
Ly flat and log roll for 6 weeks
No driving for 6 weeks
Do not lift more then 5 lb. for 6 weeks


Permanent restrictions for a laminectomy?

Do not lift by bending at the waist
No crazy activities… jerky rides, horseback riding


Cervical laminectomy can’t…

Lift objects above the head.


Nageles rule for calculating a due date is?

1st day of the last menstrual period
Add 7 days
Subtract 3 months


Normal weight gain for pregnancy?

28 + or – 3 lb


1st trimester weight gain?

1 lb a month


2nd/3rd trimester weight gain?

1 lb a week


After week 12 you can subtract 9 to get appropriate weight gain.


Fundal height is not palpable until week?



The fundus is palpable at the naval at week?



If the fundus is not above the naval the baby is not?



Positive signs of pregnancy?

Fetal skeleton on X-ray
Fetal presence on ultrasound
Auscultation of FHR (heard at week 8, most likely at 10 and should be heard by 12)
Examiner palpates fetal movement


Probable/presumptive signs of pregnancy are?

All urine and blood tests


What is Chadwicks sign?

Cervical change to cyanosis (blue hue)


What is Goodells sign?

Cervical softening


What is Hegars sign?

Softening movesd from the cervix to the uterus.


How long do you go to the doctor for pregnancy once a month?

For 28 weeks.


How long do you go to the doctor every two weeks for pregnancy?

From week 28-36


How long do you go to the doctor for pregnancy every week?

From week 36-42


Is it normal to be slightly anemic during pregnancy?



Normal Hgb level in women is?



Hgb level in first trimester?

Can fall to 11 and it is normal.


Hgb level in second trimester?

Can fall to 10.5 and is normal.


Hgb level in the third trimester?

Can fall to 10 and is normal.


How do you treat morning sickness? (1st trimester)

Dry carbohydrate


How do you treat urninary incontinence during pregnancy? (1st and 3rd trimester)

Void Q2H


Treating dyspnea during pregnancy? (2nd and 3rd trimester)

Tri-pod position


How do you treat back pain in pregnancy? (2nd and 3rd trimester)

Pelvic tilt exercise


Always teach a pregnant women to pee how often from day of pregnancy to 6 weeks post partum?



Truest most valid sign of labor is?

Regular contractions


Dilation is?

Opening of the cervix (0-10)


Effacement is?

Thinning of the cervix (0-100%)


Station is?

This refers to the baby’s presenting part (normally the head) to the mothers ischeal spine. So if the baby is above the ischeal spine they are given a – number, if they are below they are given a + number. + numbers are positive news and – numbers are negative news.


Engagement is?

Station 0


Lie is?

Relationship between the spine of the baby and the spine of the mom. Vertical (parallel) is ok, Tranverse (perpindicular) is bad.


Presentation is?

The part of the body that enters the birth canal first.


The first stage of labor is?

The labor part.


The second stage of labor is?

Delivery of the baby.


The third stage of labor is?

Delivery of the placenta.


The fourth stage of labor is?

Recovery (1st 2 hours after the placenta is delivered)


How often do you monitor during labor?

Q15min until the 2hr mark after placental delivery. Then Q1H.


The first stage of labor has how many phases?



What are the three phases of labor?

Latent, Active and Transition


Latent phase is?

0-4 cm dilated
Contractions are 5-30min apart
Lasting 15-30 sec.
They are mild


Active phase is?

5-7 cm dilated
Contractions are 3-5 min apart
Lasting 30-60 sec.
They are moderate


Transition phase is?

8-10 cm dilated
Contractions are 2-3 min apart
Lasting 60-90 seconds
They are strong


Contractions should be no longer then ____ and no closer then_____.

90 seconds and 2-3 minutes


How do you assess frequency of contractions?

Beginning of one contraction to the beginning of another.


Duration of a contraction?

Beginning to end of one contraction.


How do you assess the intensity of a contraction?

Palpate with one hand over fundus and with the fingertips.


How do you treat painful back labor?

Knee to chest position
You use your fist and press on the patients sacrum.


How do you treat prolapsed cord? 911!! OB emergency

Push head back in
Position in knee chest position or Trendelenburg


What interventions do you do for all other OB complications? (LION)

L-erft side position
I-ncrease IV
N-otify doctor
If Pitosin is running stop this first then LION


Do not give what type of pain medication to a women in labor if the medication is likely to peak when the baby is born?

Systemic medications (IM, IV, Oral)


Low fetal heart rate is ?

Bad you LION under 110


High fetal heart rate?

160 This is ok


Low baseline variability? (aka heart rate not changing)

Bad you LION


High baseline variability?

HR changing a lot. This is ok.


Late decelerations?

Bad (placenta) you LION


Early decelerations?

Head pressed on. This is ok.


Variable decelerations?

HR up or down, cord compression = BERY BAD


ACE of spades answer for OB?

Check fetal HR


If in OB its low or late you?



If variable its?

Very bad and you push and position.


The second stage of labor and delivery is all about?



So what do you do and in what order for the second stage?

Deliver the head
Suction 1st the mouth then the nose
Check for nuchle cord (cord around neck)
Deliver shoulders and body
ID band


During the third stage of labor and delivery (placental delivery) you do what two things?

Make sure it’s intact( if left in hemorrhage 1st infection 2nd)
Check for three vessels (2 arteries, 1 vein)AVA


What are the 4 things you do 4 times an hour for the 4th stage of labor?

VS- check for S/S of shock
Fundus- if boggy, massage. If displaced,void/cath
Perineal pad- excessive lochia= pad saturated Q15min 911
Roll on side and check the pad for bleeding.


The uterus should be like what after delivery?

Firm not boggy
Fundal height= days postpartum (3days= 3cm below naval)
Midline- if not catheterize


Lochia color rubra?

Red- rub it red


Lochia color serosa?

pink- rose pink


Lochia color alba?

White- albino white


Moderate lochia is?

4-6 inches on pad in one hour


Excessive lochia…

Saturated pad in 15 minutes


Extremity assessment post partum should check?

S/S of thrombophlebitis- bilateral calf circumference is the best way to check. If they are equal its ok if not its positive for whichever calf is bigger)


Post partum assessment should include what?



Milia is?

Distended sebacious glands which appear as tiny white spots on babys face.


Epsteins pearls are?

Small,white epithelial cysts on babys gums.


Mongolian spots are?

Bluish/black macules appearing over the buttocks and or thighs of darker skinned neonates.


Erythema toxicum neonatorum is?

Red papular rash on babys torso which is benign and disappears after a few days.


Hemangiomas is?

Benign tumor of the capillaries.


Cephalohematoma is?

Swelling caused by bleeding between the osteum and periosteum of the skull. This swelling does not cross suture lines.


Caput Succedaneum is?

Edematous swelling on the scalp caused by pressure during birth. This swelling may cross suture line. It usually disappears in a few day.


Hyperbilirubinemia is?

Normal, physiologic jaundice appears after 24 hours of age and disappears at about one week.


Vernix caseosa is?

Whitish, cheese like substance which covers the skin on an unborn baby.


Acrocyanosis is?

Normal cyanosis of the babys hands and feet which appears intermittently over the 1st 7-10 days.


Nevus/Nevi is?

The generic term for a birthmark.


What 2 newborn variations are you most likely to be tested on for the NCLEX?

Cephalohematoma and Caput Succedaneum


Tocolytics do what to labor?

Stop it


What are the two tocolytics?

Terbutaline= Brethine
Nifediopine= Procardia


SE for Terbutaline?

Maternal tachycardia
This drug is not good if a heart issue is already present.


SE of Nifedipine?

Headache and Hypotension (H&H)


Oxytocics do what to labor?

Start it


What are the two oxytocic’s?

Cervidil= Prostaglandin


SE of Pitocin?

Can cause hyperstimulation (contractions longer than 90 sec. and closer then 2 min.)If FHR is less then 110 stop it, if FHR is normal you slow it.
Used also for PP Hemorrhage.


SE of Cervidil?

Effacement which leads to contractions.


What are the two neonatal lung medications?



How do you give Betamethasone?

To the mom
Before delivery


SE of Betamethasone?

Increase in mom’s glucose, so monitor blood sugar.


How do you give Survanta?

To the baby
After delivery
By inhalation


Humulin 70/30 is what?

70% N insulin and
30% R insulin


When drawing up insulins its?

RN (regular then N) draw what you are RN)


If your are pressurizing for drawing up insulin you?

Draw what you are backwards. NR—-> RN


For injections an IM needle must be?

A 1 in both gauge and length.


For injections SUBQ needles must have?

A 5 in both gauge and length.


What routes can you give Heparin?



How quickly does Heparin work?



What do you monitor if on Heparin?



Antidote for Heparin is?

Protamine Sulfate


Heparin is what pregnancy class?



How can Coumadin be given?

Oral only


How long does it take for Coumadin to work?

3-5 days


What do you monitor in Coumadin?

Pt-INR(this is only for Coumadin)q


What is the antidote for Coumadin?

Vitamin K


What pregnancy class is Coumadin?



All K+ wasting diuretics end in?

X… If it ends in X its X’s out K+ everything else it K+ sparing diuretics.


What is Baclofen(Lioresil, Flexeril)?

Muscle relaxer


Baclofen(Lioresil, Flexeril) SE?

Muscle weakness and drowsiness


What should you teach a patient taking Baclofen(Lioresil, Flexeril)?

Don’t drive/ operate machinery
Don’t drink alcohol
Don’t care for children under 12


What is the saying that can be used to help remember Baclofen(Lioresil,Flexiril)?

When you’re on Baclofen you’re on your back loafin.


A 0-2 yr old is in what Paiget stage?



A 3-6 yr old is in what Piaget stage?



A 7-11 yr old is in what Piaget stage?

Concrete operation (think of a 7-11 with concrete around it)


Piaget’s Stage: 12-15 years old

Formal Operations


Piagets sensorimotor stage is characterized by?

Present oriented
Only think about what they SENSE or are DOING now.


As a nurse when, what and how do you teach a child in sensorimotor stage?

Teach when you’re doing it
What you’re doing to them
Do it verbally


Piagets pre-operational stage is characterized by?

Fantasy oriented
No rules


As a nurse when, what and how do you teach a child in the pre-operational stage?

Teach: the day of (to avoid nightmares)
What: you’re going to do
How: use PLAY


Piagets concrete operations stage is characterized by?

Rule oriented
Live and die by the rules
Cannot abstract


As a nurse when, what and how do you teach a child in the concrete operations stage?

Teach them ahead of time
What you’re going to do
Use visual and audio and use age appropriate reading


At what Piaget stage can you teach a skill like how to draw up insulin?

Concrete operations


Piagets formal operations stage can be taught like?

An adult


For prioritization the question will give what 4 pieces of information?

Modifying phrase


For a prioritization question the most important information is?

The modifying phrase


For a prioritization question what 2 pieces of information do not matter?

Age and gender


What are the four rules of prioritization?

Acute beats chronic
Fresh post-op(12hr.) beats medical or other surgical.
Unstable beats stable
The more vital the organ the higher the priority(use only as a tie breaker)


What is the best rule out of all 4 for prioritization?



What makes a patient stable? (7)

Chronic illness
Over 12 hr post op
Local or regional anesthesia
Unchanged assessment
Phrase “to be discharged”
Lab values A or B
Typical S/S for the disease they have or what they are receiving treatment for.


What makes a patient unstable? (7)

Acute illness
Post-op less than 12 hr
General anesthesia
Changed assessment
Phrase “newly admitted” or “newly diagnosed”
Labs C & D
Unexpected S/S


What 4 things are always considered unstable?

Fevers over 104*
Pulselessness and breathlessness


What are the main 6 organs in prioritized order?

  1. Brain
    2. Lung
    3. Heart
    4. Liver
    5. Kidney
    6. Pancreas


What do you not delegate to a family member?

Safety responsibilities-” can you watch your dad really fast while I grab something.”


Family can only do what you ____ them for the patient?



If another staff member is doing something illegal you?

Tell the supervisor.


What do you do if another staff member is placing the patient in physical or psychological harm?

Intervene and take over.


What do you do if a staff members behavior is legal, not harmful but just inappropriate?

Counsel them later at a better time.


The ACE of spades answer for nutrition is to either pick ____ or _____.



Never choose _______ as a food for children.



For a toddler pick ______ food.



For a preschooler ____ meal a day is ok!!!



If you know what a particular drug does pick a SE in the ______ body system.



If you have no idea what a drug is check to see if it is ___. If it is pick a _______ SE.



Ace of Spades answer for OB?

Check the FHR.


What is the first thing you assess in a Med-Surg situation?

L.O.C. = Bob, Bob, Bob are you ok????


What is the first thing you do in a Med-Surg situation?



For Peds patients, when in doubt, call it___________.



For Peds when in doubt pick?

The older age.


For Peds when in doubt pick the?

Easier task.


In Peds always give?

More time


Empathy question have?

A quote in the question and a quote in the answer.


In psych choose the answer that reflects the _______ and not the _______ they said.




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Mark Klimek

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